Monday, November 21, 2016

Published November 21, 2016 by Knowminfo with 0 comment

Chemistry Facts

1. There is about 1/2lb or 250g of table salt (NaCl) in the body of an average adult human.
2. Lightning strikes produce ozone (O3) and help strengthen the ozone layer. 
3. Humans have been using chemistry since at least Ancient Egypt. By 1000bce human civilizations were using advanced forms of chemistry like extracting metals from ore, fermenting alcohol, and refining plant extracts as medicine. 
4. DNA is flame retardant. 
5. One bucketful of water contains more atoms than the Atlantic Ocean does bucketfuls of water. 
6. If you slowly pour a handful of salt into a completely full glass of water, it will not overflow. In fact, the water level will go down. 
7. Although oxygen gas is colorless (light refraction aside), both the liquid and solid forms are blue. 
8. One inch of rain is equal to 10 inches of snow. 
9. You have chemoreceptors (taste buds) on the inside of your cheeks too. 
10. Hydrofluoric acid is so corrosive that it will dissolve glass. Although it is corrosive, hydrofluoric acid is considered to be a ‘weak acid’. 
11. Approximately 20% of the oxygen in the atmosphere was produced by the Amazonian rainforests. 
12. The only elements that are liquid at room temperature are bromine and mercury. 
13. Though solid at room temperature, gallium will liquefy in your hand. 
14. Hydrogen is the most abundant element. About 75% of the elemental mass of the universe is hydrogen. 
15. The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium, with is 1 proton and 0 neutrons. 
16. The hardest chemical in your body is your tooth enamel. 
17. The ethylene gas produced by ripening fruit, ripens other fruit and vegetables. 
18. The only letter that doesn’t appear on the Periodic Table of Elements is J. 
19. The human body contains enough carbon to produce graphite for about 9,000 pencils. 
20. If you expose a glass of water to space, it will boil rather than freeze. The water vapor would almost immediately crystallize into ice.
21 Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, water, and atmosphere. 
22. Bee stings are acidic while wasp stings are alkaline. 
23. Mosquitoes like the scent of estrogen, thus women get bitten more often than men do. 
24. The lighter was invented before the match. 
25. Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 1. It is highly flammable and is the most common element found in our universe. 
26. Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 kelvin (−196 °C, −321 °F). 
27. Around 1% of the sun’s mass is oxygen. 
28. Helium is lighter than the air around us so it floats, that's why it is perfect for the balloons you get at parties. 
29. Carbon comes in a number of different forms (allotropes), these include diamond, graphite and impure forms such as coal. 
30. Under normal conditions, oil and water do not mix. More oil facts. 
31. Although it is still debated, it is largely recognized that the word 'chemistry' comes from an Egyptian word meaning 'earth'. 
32. The use of various forms of chemistry is believed to go back as long ago as the Ancient Egyptians. By 1000 BC civilizations were using more complex forms of chemistry such as using plants for medicine, extracting metal from ores, fermenting wine and making cosmetics. 
33. Things invisible to the human eye can often be seen under UV light, which comes in handy for both scientists and detectives. 
34. Humans breathe out carbon dioxide (CO2). Using energy from sunlight, plants convert carbon dioxide into food during a process called photosynthesis. 
35. Chemical reactions occur all the time, including through everyday activities such as cooking. Try adding an acid such as vinegar to a base such as baking soda and see what happens! 
36. Athletes at the Olympic Games have to be careful how much coffee they drink. The caffeine in coffee is a banned substance because it can enhance performance. One or two cups are fine but they can go over the limit with more than five. (update - as of 2004 caffeine has been taken back off the WADA banned list but its use will be closely monitored to prevent future abuse by athletes.) 
37. Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and an atomic number of 20. 
38. Calcium is not naturally found in its elemental state but calcium compounds are common. 
39. Carbon is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. 
40. The word carbon comes from the Latin word carbo, meaning coal. 
41. Carbon forms a large number of compounds, more than any other element. Because of its willingness to bond to other nonmetallic elements it is often referred to as the building block of life. 
42. While carbon forms many different compounds it is a relatively unreactive element. 
43. There are several allotropes (different forms) of carbon with the three most well known being amorphous carbon (coal, soot etc), diamond and graphite. 
44. The properties of diamond and graphite are very different with diamond being transparent and very hard while graphite is black and soft (soft enough to write on paper). 
45. Graphite is used for its thermal insulation (lower rate of heat transfer) properties. It is also a very good conductor or electricity. 
46. The carbon atoms in graphite are bonded in flat hexagonal lattices and layered in sheets. 
47. Carbon is the 4th most common element in the Universe (after hydrogen, helium and oxygen). It is the 15th most common element in the Earth’s crust while it is the second most common element in the human body (behind oxygen). 
48. Carbon has the highest melting point of all elements, around 3500 °C (3773 K, 6332 °F). 
49. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds made entirely of molecules featuring just hydrogen and carbon. Organic chemistry involves the study of hydrocarbons. 
50. The simplest hydrocarbon compound is methane (CH4). 
51. The chemical element Chlorine has the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. 
52. On the periodic table Chlorine is in the halogen group and it is the 2nd lightest halogen gas after fluorine. 
53. In its standard form chlorine is a yellow-green gas, but its common compounds are usually colorless. Chlorine has a strong distinctive odor such as the smell of household bleach. 
54. The name Chlorine is from the Greek word chloros which means greenish yellow. 
55. Chlorine has a melting point of -150.7 °F (-101.5 °C) and a boiling point of -29.27 °F (-34.04 °C). 
56. The chemical symbol of hydrogen is H. It is an element with atomic number 1, this means that 1 proton is found in the nucleus of hydrogen. 
57. Hydrogen is the lightest, simplest and most commonly found chemical element in the Universe, making up around 75% of its elemental mass. 
58. Hydrogen is found in large amounts in giant gas planets and stars, it plays a key role in powering stars through fusion reactions. 
59. Hydrogen is one of two important elements found in water (H2O). Each molecule of water is made up of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. 
60. Nitrogen is a chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number of 7. 
61. Under normal conditions nitrogen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas. 
62. Nitrogen makes up around 78% of the air you breathe. 
63. Nitrogen is present in all living things, including the human body and plants. 
64. Nitrogen gas is used in food storage to keep packaged or bulk foods fresh. It is also used in the making of electronic parts, for industrial purposes and has many other useful applications. 
65. Nitrogen gas is often used as an alternative to carbon dioxide for storing beer in pressurized kegs. The smaller bubbles it produces is preferred for some types of beer. 
66. Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, has an atmosphere nearly entirely made of nitrogen (over 98%). It is the only moon in our solar system known to have a dense atmosphere. 
67. Oxygen is an element with the chemical symbol O and atomic number 8. 
68. Oxygen is a very reactive element that easily forms compounds such as oxides. 
69. Under standard temperature and pressure conditions two oxygen atoms join to form dioxygen (O2), a colorless, tasteless and odorless gas. 
70. Oxygen is essential to human life, it is found in the air we breathe and the water we drink (H20). 
71. Oxygen makes up around 21% of the air you breathe. It is also the most common element in the Earth’s crust (around 47%) and the third most common element in the Universe (but far less than hydrogen and helium, the two most common). 
72. The large amount of oxygen on Earth is supported by the oxygen cycle which involves the movement of oxygen between the air, living things and the Earth’s crust. Photosynthesis (a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds using sunlight) plays a major role in this cycle. 
73. Ozone (O3) is an allotrope (different form) of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms together. While ground level ozone is an air pollutant, the ozone layer in the Earth’s upper atmosphere provides protection from the suns harmful rays by filtering UV light. 
74. The sun’s mass is made up of around 1% oxygen 
75. The chemical element Silicon has a symbol Si and atomic number 14. 
76. Silicon is a metalloid (or semi metal). This means it has some properties like a metal, for example, it looks like a metal and some like a non-metal, for example, it does not do conduct electricity very easily. 
77. Because silicon is a metalloid it is useful as a semiconductor which means it has electrical conductivity between metals and non-metal insulators like glass. 
78. Silicon is the 8th most abundant element in the universe by mass. 
79. Silicon is not found as a free element in nature, but rather it occurs as oxides and silicates in many minerals. Over 90% of the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass) is composed of silicate minerals, which is why silicon is the 2nd most common element on earth after oxygen. 
80. The melting point of sulfur is 247.3 °F (119.6 °C) and the boiling point is 832.3 °F (444.6 °C). 
81. Sulfur is non-toxic in its pure element form and in the sulphate form. But its compounds such as carbon disulphide, hydrogen sulphide and sulfur dioxide are all toxic. 
82. Mineral collectors like elemental sulfur crystals for their distinct, brightly colored polyhedron (multisided) shapes. 
83. Sulfur compounds can naturally occur as sulfide minerals such as pyrite, cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Or as sulfate minerals such as gypsum, alunite and barite.


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